Proceedings of the IEEE - Featured Article - Volakis

Proceedings of the IEEE - Featured Article - Volakis

Small and Adaptive Antennas and Arrays for GNSS Applications

Published in June 2016



John L. Volakis, Andrew J. O'Brien, and Chi-Chih Chen


This paper reviews Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) antennas and arrays for robust coverage in presence of interference signals with a focus on antenna design aspects. A number of small antenna designs are presented that cover multiple current and future GNSS frequency bands (1150-1610 MHz) with sizes as small as 1 in (25 mm) in diameter. Several arrays are presented with a size as small as 3.5 in (8.9 cm) in diameter and approximately 0.5 in (13 mm) thick as compared to commercially available apertures 14 in (35.6 cm) and 5.5 in (14.0 cm) in diameter. These small arrays are shown to satisfy the gain requirements of GNSS receivers while simultaneously offering four to six antenna elements for adaptive interference suppression.